Fifthly, cultural background also has predictive power (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1982).
In addition to the known risk factors for alcoholism, there are several other possible candidates.
The test–retest reliability for classification of first-degree relatives has been found to be good, while data for second-degree relatives is considerably less reliable (Worobec ., 1990).
Tendency to facial flushing was measured by one question on an 11-point scale.
Much of the prospective evidence is based on studies with small numbers of alcoholics (Mc Cord and Mc Cord, 1960; Robins ., 1962; Vaillant and Milofsky, 1982; Vaillant, 1984; Schuckit, 1994) and the interpretation of these findings is undermined by variation in the number of other factors controlled for in the analysis and the definition of the outcome and the diagnostic criteria.
Several earlier studies have combined two diagnostic categories, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse, into one overall outcome variable (Vaillant, 1984; Spak ., 1995).The present case-control study aimed to examine which of the above correlates of heavy alcohol use, problem drinking or alcoholism remain(s) associated with alcohol dependence, defined by the ICD-10 criteria (World Health Organization, 1992) after controlling for the known risk factors in a culturally homogeneous population.The case series was collected from the Järvenpää Addiction Hospital between April 1995 and March 1997.The mean age (SD) was 43.2 (14.7) years for men and 44.7 (14.6) years for women. One subject reported misuse of cannabis and another misuse of sedative drugs.Neither met the ICD-10 criteria for substance dependence.Questions used to operationalize the diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to both ICD-10 criteria have been described in detail earlier (Caetano and Tam, 1995). These questions pertained to the previous 12 months.Parental history of drinking problems was assessed by asking whether the parents of the respondents had ever had drinking problems or had been in treatment because of these.Trait anxiety has been found to be associated with susceptibility to heavy alcohol use among adolescents (Colder and Chassin, 1993), with craving for alcohol among alcoholics (Mc Cusker and Brown, 1991), and to predict alcohol dependence longitudinally (Heath ., 1994) have also been found to be associated with problem drinking or alcoholism.The role of these factors in the aetiology of alcohol dependence remains to be clarified.Factor analyses have suggested that scales of monotony avoidance, impulsiveness, and socialization combine into a common factor that has been called the impulsive sensation-seeking psychopathy factor (Knorring ., 1987).The scale for this measures the respondent's perception of who is in control: him- or herself (internal control) or others, or fate (external control).