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They concluded that creationists were successful in these debates because their arguments differed in form (but not content) from the arguments used by proponents of evolution.Rebecca Church and I described the ways that proponents of creationism and evolution differed in the manner in which they framed their arguments in terms of proof and certainty.They noted that creationists had a penchant for claiming that proponents of evolution had referred to evidence for evolution as “proof” of evolution.
We did not use sermons, Power Point presentations, audio, or video files.
All of the websites we chose were advocacy sites that presented lists of arguments arguing for one of three positions: creationism, ID, or evolution.
The Barnes and Church study analyzed texts found in fairly contemporary websites.
However, that study didn’t look at the specific kinds of persuasive arguments generated by the various sides of the origins controversy.
For this reason, it seemed likely that ID and non-ID forms of creationism might use different arguments and rhetorical strategies.
Creationism Vs Evolution Essays Articles
Our choice in keeping these two categories distinct allowed us to determine whether proponents of ID use different kinds of persuasive arguments than individuals from other creationist traditions. In some cases, our efforts to locate and identify arguments were made easy because some websites listed arguments by bullet points or numbers, while others used paragraphs or outlines to separate unique arguments.Once the arguments were located, our next job was to choose a systematic method for dissecting and labeling the arguments.Toulmin created a useful and widely used system in which an argument may be divided into its component parts, which include data and claim.Data includes the evidence or reasons given in support of a claim, while a claim is the conclusion that is supported by the data.For instance, consider the argument “Because dinosaur and human footprints were found together at the Paluxy River we know that humans and dinosaurs lived together at the same time.” The data would be the footprints and the claim would be “humans and dinosaurs lived together at the same time.” This example illustrates that the data may include incorrect information or faulty reasoning.Scientists and science journalists are not the only individuals who make persuasive arguments about science, however.Those without any scientific credentials can, and do, argue for and against certain scientific claims.Because there were certain unanswered questions regarding the nature of persuasive arguments about origins, Church, Samuel Draznin-Nagy, and I decided to analyze the contemporary websites that persuasively argued for either creationism, ID, or evolution.Our main goal was to identify all the persuasive arguments, and then describe them in terms of type and topic.Several years ago, I became curious as to whether those in the scientific mainstream argued for their position in the same way that those outside the scientific mainstream argued their case.For instance, are the types of arguments used by mainstream scientists similar to the types of arguments employed by creationists?