Critical Thinking As

Critical Thinking As-80
(Dewey 1910: 6; 1933: 9) and identified a habit of such consideration with a scientific attitude of mind.His lengthy quotations of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill indicate that he was not the first person to propose development of a scientific attitude of mind as an educational goal.

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Standardized tests have been developed to assess the degree to which a person possesses such dispositions and abilities.

Educational intervention has been shown experimentally to improve them, particularly when it includes dialogue, anchored instruction, and mentoring.

For details on this history, see the Supplement on History.

Before considering the definition of critical thinking, it will be helpful to have in mind some examples of critical thinking, as well as some examples of kinds of thinking that would apparently not count as critical thinking.

Bloom’s influential taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives (Bloom et al. Ennis (1962) proposed 12 aspects of critical thinking as a basis for research on the teaching and evaluation of critical thinking ability.

Since 1980, an annual international conference in California on critical thinking and educational reform has attracted tens of thousands of educators from all levels of education and from many parts of the world.

In 1987, the APA’s Committee on Pre-College Philosophy commissioned a consensus statement on critical thinking for purposes of educational assessment and instruction (Facione 1990a).

Researchers have developed standardized tests of critical thinking abilities and dispositions; for details, see the Supplement on Assessment.

Dewey (1910: 68–71; 1933: 91–94) takes as paradigms of reflective thinking three class papers of students in which they describe their thinking.

The examples range from the everyday to the scientific.

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