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It seemed to me that learning about the quality of evidence and drawing appropriate conclusions from scientific research were central to teaching critical thinking (CT) in psychology.In this article, I have attempted to provide guidelines to psychology instructors on how to teach CT, describing techniques I developed over 20 years of teaching.A set of guidelines for evaluating the position of critical thinking as an educational requirement in an institution’s general education or degree program learning outcomes.
Grant Anderson Psychology 101 Mid-term Essay Paper 10/27/2008 The Eight Guidelines to Critical Thinking In the discipline of Psychology, there are eight guidelines to critical thinking.
This essay will discuss all of them with examples to help understand each one.
The first is to Ask Questions: Be willing to wonder (Wade & Travis, 2008 p.8). ” Unfortunately, as children grow up, they tend to stop asking “why” questions. Vincent Ruggiero (1988) observed, “The trigger mechanism for creative thinking is the disposition to be curious, to wonder, to Several popular books have asserted, without any evidence that most women suffer from it.
Young children may ask questions such as, “Why is the sky blue Mommy? However, the evidence shows that many women do have physical symptoms associated with menstruation including cramps, breast tenderness, and water retention, although many women vary in this regard.
Overview of the Guidelines Confusion about the definition of CT has been a major obstacle to teaching and assessing it (Halonen, 1995; Williams, 1999).
To deal with this problem, we have defined CT as reflective thinking involved in the evaluation of evidence relevant to a claim so that a sound or good conclusion can be drawn from the evidence (Bensley, 1998).Evidence can be the results of an experiment, case study, naturalistic observation study, or psychological test.Less formally, evidence can be anecdotes, introspective reports, commonsense beliefs, or statements of authority.Our research on acquisition of argument analysis skills in psychology (Bensley, Crowe, Bernhardt, Buchner, & Allman, in press) and on critical reading skills (Bensley & Haynes, 1995; Spero & Bensley, 2009) suggests that more explicit, direct instruction of CT skills is necessary.These results concur with results of an earlier review of CT programs by Chance (1986) and a recent meta-analysis by Abrami et al., (2008).Psychology students need argument analysis skills to evaluate psychological claims in their work and in everyday discourse.Some instructors expect their students will improve CT skills like argument analysis skills by simply immersing them in challenging course work.So to with emotional symptoms associated with menstruation-notably depression irritability that only about five percent of all women have such symptoms over their cycles.The fourth essential guideline to critical thinking is to analyze assumptions and biases (Wade & Travis 2008, p. Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted.Directly infusing CT skills into course work involves targeting specific CT skills, making CT rules, criteria, and methods explicit, providing guided practice in the form of exercises focused on assessing skills, and giving feedback on practice and assessments.These components are similar to ones found in effective, direct instruction approaches (Walberg, 2006).