Essay Brief Summary Of Hinduism

Essay Brief Summary Of Hinduism-5
Each time a person acts there is some quality of intention at the base of the mind and it is that quality that determines its effect.Rebirth refers to a process in which beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life, each running from conception to death.However, in modern China all doctrines are regarded as equally valid.

Each time a person acts there is some quality of intention at the base of the mind and it is that quality that determines its effect.Rebirth refers to a process in which beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life, each running from conception to death.

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Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu (formless realms) can be attained only by people who can meditate on the arupa-jhānas.

According to East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism, there is an intermediate state in between one life and the next, but Theravada rejects this.

While the Madhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any ultimately real thing was inappropriate, some exponents of Yogācāra asserted that the mind and only the mind is ultimately real.

Not all Yogācārins asserted that mind was truly existent, Vasubandhu and Asanga in particular did not.

In the eyes of Nagarjuna the Buddha was not merely a forerunner, but the very founder of the Madhyamaka system.

Sarvāstivāda teaching, which was criticized by Nāgārjuna, was reformulated by scholars such as Vasubandhu and Asanga and were adapted into the Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice) school.They are sometimes considered as containing the essence of the Buddha's teachings and are presented in the manner of a medical diagnosis and remedial prescription – a style common at that time: An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way, which is said to have been discovered by Gautama Buddha prior to his enlightenment.The Middle Way or Middle Path has several definitions: Mahāyāna Buddhism received significant theoretical grounding from Nāgārjuna (perhaps c.150–250 CE), arguably the most influential scholar within the Mahāyāna tradition.In Early Buddhism, bodhi carried a meaning synonymous to nirvana, using only some different metaphors to describe the experience, which implies the extinction of raga (greed, craving), dosa (hate, aversion) and moha (delusion).In the later school of Mahayana Buddhism, the status of nirvana was downgraded in some scriptures, coming to only refer to the extinction of greed and hate, implying that delusion was still present in one who attained nirvana, and that one needed to attain bodhi to eradicate delusion: "An important development in the Mahayana [was] that it came to separate nirvana from bodhi ('awakening' to the truth, Enlightenment), and to put a lower value on the former (Gombrich, 1992d).Each rebirth repeats this process in an involuntary cycle, which Buddhists strive to end by eradicating these causes and conditions, applying the methods laid out by the Buddha.According to the Pali Tipitaka, the Four Noble Truths were the first teaching of Gautama Buddha after attaining Nirvana.Nirvana means "cessation", "extinction" (of craving and ignorance and therefore suffering and the cycle of involuntary rebirths Samsara), "extinguished", "quieted", "calmed"; it's also known as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West.Buddhists believe that anybody who has achieved nirvana is in fact a Buddha.These two schools of thought, in opposition or synthesis, form the basis of subsequent Mahāyāna metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.In the Mahayana school, emphasis is also often placed on the notions of Emptiness (shunyata), perfected spiritual insight (prajnaparamita) and Buddha-nature (the deathless tathagatagarbha, or Buddha womb, inherent in all beings and creatures).


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