Nevertheless, African Americans have made basic and lasting contributions to American history and culture.
At the turn of the 21st century, more than half the country’s more than 36 million African Americans lived in the South; 10 Southern states had black populations exceeding 1 million.
With the increasing profitability of slavery and the slave trade, some Africans themselves sold captives to the European traders.
The captured Africans were generally marched in chains to the coast and crowded into the holds of slave ships for the dreaded Middle Passage across the Atlantic Ocean, usually to the West Indies.
In the 16th century some black explorers settled in the Mississippi valley and in the areas that became South Carolina and New Mexico.
The most celebrated black explorer of the Americas was Estéban, who traveled through the Southwest in the 1530s.
Mitch Goodwin does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Today the Rolling Stones release On Air, a collection of much-bootlegged BBC live studio broadcasts taped for a variety of programs between 19.
The remastered set provides a rare glimpse of the young musicians playing to order the songs that defined their early hybrid sound and telegraphed – much like The Beatles – their love for African-American music.
Shock, disease, and suicide were responsible for the deaths of at least one-sixth during the crossing.
In the West Indies the survivors were “seasoned”—taught the rudiments of English and drilled in the routines and discipline of plantation life.