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The participants in this study were poor African American men in the vicinity of Tuskegee, Alabama, who were told that they were being treated for “bad blood.” Although they were given some free medical care, they were not treated for their syphilis.Instead, they were observed to see how the disease developed in untreated patients.
represent four general moral principles that apply to scientific research: weighing risks against benefits, acting responsibly and with integrity, seeking justice, and respecting people’s rights and dignity.
(These principles are taken from the Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS 2) of Ethical Conduct.) The columns of represent three groups of people that are affected by scientific research: the research participants, the scientific community, and society more generally.
Each case was classified according to the primary ethical reasoning that the student used to justify plagiarism.
Results indicate that students predominately invoke deontology, situational ethics, and Machiavellianism.
Neil’s research focuses on three areas: (1) Instilling meaning and motivation into marketing education, (2) E-Commerce: Development and effect on marketing educators and practitioners, and (3) Awareness of ethics: Its influence on the internal culture of organization. Dana Loewy teaches Business Communication at Cal State Fullerton. Fluent in several languages, among them German and Czech, Dana has published critical articles in many areas of interest and various poetry as well as prose translations, most notably the 1997 volume The Early Poetry of Jaroslav Seifert from Northwestern University Press.
is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with morality—what it means to behave morally and how people can achieve that goal.Given the tremendous proliferation of student plagiarism involving the Internet, the purpose of this study is to determine which theory of ethical reasoning students invoke when defending their transgressions: deontology, utilitarianism, rational self-interest, Machiavellianism, cultural relativism, or situational ethics.Understanding which theory of ethical reasoning students employ is critical, as preemptive steps can be taken by faculty to counteract this reasoning and prevent plagiarism.As the opening example illustrates, many kinds of ethical issues can arise in scientific research, especially when it involves human participants.For this reason, it is useful to begin with a general framework for thinking through these issues.Consider, for example, Stanley Milgram’s original study on obedience to authority (Milgram, 1963)The participants were told that they were taking part in a study on the effects of punishment on learning and were instructed to give electric shocks to another participant each time that participant responded incorrectly on a learning task.With each incorrect response, the shock became stronger—eventually causing the other participant (who was in the next room) to protest, complain about his heart, scream in pain, and finally fall silent and stop responding.The idea is that a thorough consideration of the ethics of any research project must take into account how each of the three core principles applies to each of the three groups of people.The guidelines in the TCPS 2 are based on the following three core principles: It may seem obvious what is ethical and what is not, but two studies from our recent past show us that researchers often blur the lines for the sake of science.It can also refer to a set of principles and practices that provide moral guidance in a particular field.There is an ethics of business, medicine, teaching, and of course, scientific research.