The GRI is a network with experts and representatives from various sectors of society present in over 40 countries around the world, and it has been determining the guidelines to sustainability reporting with the participation of several important stakeholders (GRI, 2008).
Table II presents the social and environmental aspects defined by the GRI guidelines.
Later, Lacy (2009) reinforce the importance of TBL as the main proxy to represent and measure sustainability in organisations.
In the search for a consensus, among countless definitions and terminologies, the three-pillar approach called the TBL has been a widely accepted perspective for sustainability not only by scholars but also by society and organisations (Lacy , 2010), although the TBL has not been exempt from criticism and contention (Norman and Mc Donald, 2004; Macdonald and Norman, 2007).
Three hypotheses establish associations among the degrees of use of TBL indicators and their different degrees of use in firms. https://doi.org/10.1108/REGE-04-2018-0065 Download as . The full terms of this licence may be seen at Sustainability, despite its inherent difficult to be properly defined (Lélé, 1991; Glavič and Lukman, 2007), has become a major issue when seen from an organisational perspective. Atkinson , 2002; Epstein and Roy, 2003), since sustainability has had its role increased in several aspects of management, one issue has arisen: how to better understand the way sustainability has been taken into account in terms of performance measurement by the firms?
The authors used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to validate the scale and structural equation modelling to represent the final measurement model. The results pointed out that there are positive associations among the degree of use of environmental indicators and social indicators, economic, environmental and social indicators have different degrees of use in firms, a positive association between the degree of use of environmental and social indicators and the use of economic indicators was not confirmed. In order to find an answer to this question, numerous studies have dealt with how companies could turn firm’s sustainability performance into a systematic and effective way (Veleva and Ellenbecker, 2001; Warhust, 2002; Azapagic, 2004; Singh , 2012; Krajnc and Glavič, 2005; Searcy, 2009). Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence.Outcome measures without performance drivers do not communicate how the outcomes are to be achieved”.Simons (2000) also stresses that a well-designed BSC should allow a balance between short and long-term objectives and outcome (lagging) and process (leading) measures, besides establishing both objective and subjective measures for firm’s performance.Given the importance of the theme and the need for differentiation for unequal realities, several scholars have tried to shed some light on how to integrate sustainability measurement in organisations from different sectors.Thus, studies depict sectors such as minerals (Azapagic, 2004); textiles (Zamcopé , 2007).In this fashion, this paper aims to propose a minimum set of indicators to be measured by industrial companies to represent their performance according to the TBL approach.To do so, the instrument for data collection was threefold: for the economic dimension, we used 20 BSCs typical indicators, according to Henri (2009); 9 and 22 indicators from Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (2008) for environmental and social dimensions, respectively.Despite its importance, there have been some difficulty and controversy in defining what sustainability is (Lélé, 1991; Doppelt, 2008), especially on how to translate it into business frameworks and practices.Possibly, due to its complexity, organisational sustainability is most known as represented by the “TBL”.